Compendium: “Manipulating the Public Discourse: Disinformation and Propaganda”

The compendium, “Manipulating the public discourse: Disinformation and Propaganda,” is an essential compilation for those seeking to understand and navigate the complex landscape of disinformation that has proliferated in recent years. It brings together a diverse array of texts, fact-checking articles, in-depth analyses, and reviews covering 2023. The year was marked by significant global and regional challenges, including geopolitical shifts, the war in Ukraine. In North Macedonia and the region, disinformation has frequently been employed as a tool to undermine democratic processes. This publication addresses a spectrum of topics where disinformation and misinformation have been particularly extensive. It delves into how geopolitical narratives, the impacts of the war in Ukraine, pandemic-related misinformation, and skewed representations of family values and the European Union have been manipulated to sway public opinion and distort reality. The contents of this publication serve not only as a public record of these events but also as a resource for anyone interested in understanding the tactics and implications of disinformation. It is a fragment of the great work undertaken by my colleagues at Metamorphosis Foundation, particularly at, who have dedicated themselves to the tireless pursuit of truth.
Their efforts in fact-checking and critical analysis are crucial in combatting the harmful effects of disinformation.


During the last quarter of 2023, various external actors continued to target the societies of Western Balkans with disinformation and related manipulation tactics, through a range of influence operations by various authoritarian forces, to hybrid warfare by Russia. This monitoring report presents an overview of key disinformation trends affecting Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, […]

“Error 403: Identity Forbidden

“Error 403: Identity Forbidden” is an analytical report on the prevailing conversation on social media regarding North Macedonia’s accesion to European Union and NATO membership. Research conducted by Metamorphosis Foundation as part of IRI’s Beacon Project from November 2023 to January 2024 indicates that the issues of integration of North Macedonia in the European Union […]

The effect of disinformation and foreign influences on the democratic processes in North Macedonia in 2023

In 2023, the creation and dissemination of disinformation were recognized not only as a media, but also as a security problem which disrupts the functioning of democratic institutions and the media sphere, posing enormous risks to society as a whole and jeopardizing fundamental human rights – from personal security and health to various freedoms. After […]